The legislative power is competent to lay taxes, duties, imposts, and excises; — there is no limitation to this power, unless it be said that the clause which directs the use to which those taxes, and duties shall be applied, may be said to be a limitation; but this is no restriction of the power at all, for by this clause they are to be applied to pay the debts and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States; but the legislature have authority to contract debts at their discretion; they are the sole judges of what is necessary to provide for the common defense, and they only are to determine what is for the general welfare: Go back to the main documents page. It has the authority to make laws which will affect the lives, the liberty, and property of every man in the United States, nor can the constitution or laws of any state in any way prevent or impede the full and complete execution of every power given. Detail shot of the Car of History in National Statuary Hall This marble sculpture, created in , is among the oldest works of art in the U. Hence the government will be nerveless and inefficient, and no way will be left to render it otherwise, but by establishing an armed force to execute the laws at the point of the bayonet — a government of all others the most to be dreaded. The Grecian republics were of small extent, so also was that of the Romans.
So, they’re starting with this argument that his new constitution is really creating just one supreme government instead of a confederation of sovereign republics that coordinate for certain, defined national purposes. With these few introductory remarks, I shall proceed to a consideration of this constitution:. If respect is to be paid to the opinion of the greatest and wisest men who have ever thought or wrote on the science of government, we shall be constrained to conclude, that a free republic cannot succeed over a country of such immense extent, containing such a number of inhabitants, and these encreasing in such rapid progression as that of the whole United States. In a free republic, although all laws are derived from the consent of the people, yet the people do not declare their consent by themselves in person, but by representatives, chosen by them, who are supposed to know the minds of their constituents, and to be possessed of integrity to declare this mind. Hence the government will be nerveless and inefficient, and no way will be left to render it otherwise, but by establishing an armed force to execute the laws at the point of the bayonet — a government of all others the most to be dreaded. If then this new constitution is calculated to consolidate the thirteen states into one, as it evidently is, it ought not to be adopted. Footnotes This major work by the French political theorist was first published in
It is insisted, indeed, that this constitution must be received, be it ever so imperfect.
Their manners and habits differ as much as their climates and productions; and their sentiments are by no means coincident. To the Citizens of the State of New-York. You may solace yourselves with the idea, that society, in this favoured land, will fast advance to the highest point of perfection; the human mind will expand in knowledge and virtue, and the golden age be, in some measure, realised.
These are some of the reasons by which it appears that a free republic cannot long subsist over a country of the great extent of these states. Momentous then is the question you have to determine, and you are called upon by every motive which should influence a noble and virtuous mind, to examine it well, and to make up a wise judgment.
The most important question that was ever proposed to your decision, or to the decision of nati-federalist people under heaven, is before you, and you are to decide upon it by men of your own election, chosen specially for this purpose.
Besides, it is a truth confirmed by the unerring experience of ages, that every man, and every body of men, invested with power, are anti-feeeralist disposed to increase it, and to acquire a superiority over every thing that stands in their way. In other words, it is impossible to create one set of national laws to govern one big, diverse country!
It might be here shown, that the power in the federal legislative, to raise and support armies at pleasure, as well in peace as in war, and their control over the militia, tend, not only to a consolidation of the government, but the destruction of liberty. This cannot fail of being the case, if we consider the contracted limits which are set by this constitution, to the anti-fedderalist [state?
Brutus (Antifederalist) – Wikipedia
If this anti-federalisf not the cases, there will be a constant clashing of opinions and the representatives of one part will be continually striving against those of the other. Government power and individual rights. This page was last edited on 27 Januaryat They will use the power, when they have acquired it, to the purposes of gratifying their own interest and ambition, and it is scarcely possible, in a very large republic, to call them to account for their misconduct, or to prevent their abuse of power.
The legislative power is competent to lay taxes, duties, imposts, and excises; — there is no limitation to this power, unless it be said that bruus clause which directs the use to which those taxes, and duties shall be applied, may be said to be a limitation: With these few introductory remarks, I shall proceed to a consideration of this constitution:.
Anti-Federalists and Brutus No. 1
Now, in a large extended country, it is impossible to have a representation, possessing the sentiments, and of integrity, to declare the minds of the people, without having it so numerous and unwieldy, as to be subject in great measure to the inconveniency summarg a democratic government.
It is here taken for granted, that all agree in this, that whatever government we adopt, it ought to be a free one; that it should be so framed as to secure the liberty of the ssummary of America, and such an one as to admit of a full, fair, and equal representation of the people.
Go back to the main documents page. But when a government is to receive its support from the aid of the citizens, it must sssay so constructed as to have the confidence, respect, and affection of the people.
He’s saying hey, there’s going to be so many views. In every essay, the will of the sovereign is the law. How far the clause in the 8th section of the 1st article may operate to do away all idea of confederated states, and to effect an entire consolidation of the whole into one general government, it is impossible to say.
It is not meant, by stating this case, to insinuate that the constitution would warrant a law of this kind; or unnecessarily to alarm the fears of the people, by suggesting, that bruttus federal legislature would be more likely to pass the limits assigned them by the constitution, than that of an individual state, further than they are less responsible to the people.
The Anti-Federalist Papers: Brutus I | Tara Ross
When these are attended with great honor and emolument, as they always will be in large states, so as greatly to interest men summaary pursue them, and to be proper objects for ambitious and designing men, such men will be ever restless in their wnti-federalist after them. It certainly is not. In a large republic there are men of large fortunes, and consequently of less moderation; there are trusts too great to be placed in any single subject; he has interest of his own; he soon begins to think that #11 may be happy, great and glorious, by oppressing his fellow citizens; and that he may raise himself to grandeur on the ruins of his country.
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But remember, when the people once part with power, they can seldom or never resume it again but by force. All 16 of the essays were addressed to “the Citizens of the State of New York”. The confidence which the people have in their rulers, in a free republic, arises from their knowing them, from their being responsible to anti-fedrealist for their conduct, and from the power they have of displacing them when they misbehave: